Review of: MeuSen Selfie

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MeuSen Selfie

Erkunden Sie das Deutsche Museum virtuell und lassen Sie sich von unserer Highlight-Tour durch die Ausstellungen führen. Mehr von Comité Miss 15/17 Meuse auf Facebook anzeigen. Anmelden 8 · 2. Bild könnte enthalten: eine oder mehrere Personen, Selfie und Nahaufnahme. - Sabine Meusen hat diesen Pin entdeckt. Entdecke (und sammle) deine eigenen Pins bei Pinterest. Funny Selfie Quotes. Mehr dazu.

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- Sabine Meusen hat diesen Pin entdeckt. Entdecke (und sammle) deine eigenen Pins bei Pinterest. Funny Selfie Quotes. Mehr dazu. - Sabine Meusen hat diesen Pin entdeckt. Entdecke (und sammle) deine eigenen Pins bei Pinterest. Lustige Selfie-zitate. Mehr dazu. Wir beginnen in Marseille mit einem Selfie auf der Terrasse des Mucem. In Bordeaux bewundern wir Im Rodin-Museum werfen wir uns in Pose. Wir zählen die.

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Arguably one of the most instagrammable places in the East, here you can immerse yourself into our fun, eye-catching, interactive art installations. Experience many unique themes knowing we had your best selfie in mind. Bring your friends, family, a date, or just yourself and your phone, and unleash your inner child!. Museum of Selfies is a new and top rated interactive exhibit in LA! It invites you to experience a day of fun, laughter and unforgettable memories with your friends and family. Explore the most unique installations that will let you do things you could only dream about. What appears to be a soda machine in the lobby at the Rich Girls Museum is actually a door. “They don’t even know this is back here at all,” says owner MarTeekia Sweat, referring to the museum situated behind the Rich Girl’s clothing shop. “They’ll think they’re going out the door like, ‘Okay, where are we going?,’”. Selfie Museum Warsaw, Warszawa. 1, likes · 59 talking about this · were here. Selfie Museum, to przestrzeń kreatywno - edukacyjna. Rezerwacje tel. While some businesses had to shut their doors because of the pandemic, a University of Iowa sophomore thought it was the perfect time to open hers. "The Influence," is an interactive selfie museum.

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Ihre Downloads werden in Ihrer Dropbox gespeichert. - Sabine Meusen hat diesen Pin entdeckt. Entdecke (und sammle) deine eigenen Pins bei Pinterest. Lustige Selfie-zitate. Mehr dazu. Finde diesen Pin und vieles mehr auf Abschied kollegen von Sabine Meusen. Mehr dazu. Finde diesen Pin und vieles mehr auf. Jetzt das Foto Stadtansicht Von Dinant In Der Nacht Am Fluss Meuse Belgien herunterladen. Und durchsuchen Sie die Bibliothek von iStock mit lizenzfreien. - Sabine Meusen hat diesen Pin entdeckt. Entdecke (und sammle) deine eigenen Pins bei Pinterest. Funny Selfie Quotes. Mehr dazu. Gordon Ramsay laments England's lockdown with snap of son Oscar Sargeant, J. Schunk Sport1 Erotikfilme York, NY: Routledge1— Rubrics and self-assessment scripts effects on self-regulation, learning and self-efficacy in secondary education. Hacker, D. Baars, M. The association between self-assessment and learning has Vixxen.Com been explained in terms of self-regulation Andrade, ; Panadero and Alonso-Tapia, ; Andrade and Brookhart,; Panadero et al. Traffic lights seem to be most effective at supporting students' reflections on how well they understand a concept or have mastered a skill, which is line with their creators' original intent, so they are categorized as formative self-assessments Dicke Hure one's MeuSen Selfie sounds like metacognition. This is FickmeuSe very promising direction for the field. Improving students with rubric-based self-assessment and oral feedback. By Leigh Mcmanus For Mailonline 19 AprBeste Fotze 19 Apr Brown and L. Citation: Pornohammer.Com HL A Critical Review of Research on Student Self-Assessment.
MeuSen Selfie Do I need to Extrem Dicke SchwäNze my own selfie stick? Simply show your ticket and its QR code when you arrive. This error message is only visible to WordPress admins Error: API requests are being delayed. MORE STORIES. See the world from our Upside Down Room. Discover the coolest #freetoedit images. Edit This Image Add Text Remove Background Add Sticker Add Color Exposure Add Effects Add Text Remove Background Add Sticker Add Color Exposure Add Effects. 4/26/ · Taking a selfie. Question asked by Bryan Boyd on Mar 13, Latest reply on Apr 26, by Kristin Lundstrum. Comment • 4; How do I take a selfie and download it onto canvas? I have to complete this assignment for sociology. Hoe maak je een selfie? Een selfie is een zelfportret, waarbij je de foto zelf maakt met je telefoon. Het is erg fijn om tijdens het maken van een selfie, te. Informationen zum Datenschutz des Deutschen Museums Informationen zum Lexy Roxx Masturbiert der NavVis GmbH. Diese Art von Inhalt ist dazu bestimmt, im Zusammenhang mit Ereignissen verwendet zu werden, hidden cam dog sex berichtenswert oder von öffentlichem Interesse sind beispielsweise in einem Blog, Lehrbuch äLtere Nutten Zeitungs- bzw. In Ihrem Abonnement enthalten. Umfasst unsere Standardlizenz.

The self-assessment was highly scaffolded: students were asked to underline key phrases in the rubric with colored pencils e. If students found they had not met the standard, they were asked to write themselves a reminder to make improvements when they wrote their final drafts.

This process was followed for each criterion on the rubric. There were main effects on scores for every self-assessed criterion on the rubric, suggesting that guided self-assessment according to the co-created criteria helped students produce more effective writing.

Panadero and his colleagues have also done quasi-experimental and experimental research on standards-referenced self-assessment, using rubrics or lists of assessment criteria that are presented in the form of questions Panadero et al.

Panadero calls the list of assessment criteria a script because his work is grounded in research on scaffolding e. Either way, the list provides standards for the task.

Here is a script for a written summary that Panadero et al. Is it at the beginning of my summary? What is my goal?

Most interesting, perhaps, is one study Panadero and Romero, that demonstrated an association between rubric-referenced self-assessment activities and all three phases of SRL; forethought, performance, and reflection.

There are surely many other methods of self-assessment to include in Table 1 , as well as interesting conversations to be had about which method goes where and why.

In the meantime, I offer the taxonomy in Table 1 as a way to define and operationalize self-assessment in instructional contexts and as a framework for the following overview of current research on the subject.

Several recent reviews of self-assessment are available Brown and Harris, ; Brown et al. Instead, I chose to take a birds-eye view of the field, with goal of reporting on what has been sufficiently researched and what remains to be done.

I used the references lists from reviews, as well as other relevant sources, as a starting point. In order to update the list of sources, I directed two new searches 1 , the first of the ERIC database, and the second of both ERIC and PsychINFO.

Because the focus was on K educational contexts, sources were excluded if they were about early childhood education or professional development.

The first search yielded hits; the second 1, Research that was unrelated to instructional feedback was excluded, such as studies limited to self-estimates of performance before or after taking a test, guesses about whether a test item was answered correctly, and estimates of how many tasks could be completed in a certain amount of time.

Although some of the excluded studies might be thought of as useful investigations of self-monitoring, as a group they seemed too unrelated to theories of self-generated feedback to be appropriate for this review.

Seventy-six studies were selected for inclusion in Table S1 Supplementary Material , which also contains a few studies published before that were not included in key reviews, as well as studies solicited directly from authors.

The Table S1 in the Supplementary Material contains a complete list of studies included in this review, organized by the focus or topic of the study, as well as brief descriptions of each.

This distinction was often difficult to make due to a lack of information. A sentence or two of explanation about the process of self-assessment in the procedures sections of published studies would be most useful.

Figure 1 graphically represents the number of studies in the four most common topic categories found in the table—achievement, consistency, student perceptions, and SRL.

The figure reveals that research on self-assessment is on the rise, with consistency the most popular topic. Of the 76 studies in the table in the appendix, 44 were inquiries into the consistency of students' self-assessments with other judgments e.

Twenty-five studies investigated the relationship between self-assessment and achievement. Fifteen explored students' perceptions of self-assessment.

Twelve studies focused on the association between self-assessment and self-regulated learning. One examined self-efficacy, and two qualitative studies documented the mental processes involved in self-assessment.

In the remainder of this review I examine each topic in turn. Table S1 Supplementary Material reveals that much of the recent research on self-assessment has investigated the accuracy or, more accurately, consistency, of students' self-assessments.

The term consistency is more appropriate in the classroom context because the quality of students' self-assessments is often determined by comparing them with their teachers' assessments and then generating correlations.

Given the evidence of the unreliability of teachers' grades Falchikov, , the assumption that teachers' assessments are accurate might not be well-founded Leach, ; Brown et al.

Ratings of student work done by researchers are also suspect, unless evidence of the validity and reliability of the inferences made about student work by researchers is available.

Consequently, much of the research on classroom-based self-assessment should use the term consistency , which refers to the degree of alignment between students' and expert raters' evaluations, avoiding the purer, more rigorous term accuracy unless it is fitting.

Qualitatively different forms of self-assessment, especially summative and formative types, cannot be lumped together without obfuscating important aspects of self-assessment as feedback.

Given my concern about combining studies of summative and formative assessment, you might anticipate a call for research on consistency that distinguishes between the two.

I will make no such call for three reasons. One is that we have enough research on the subject, including the 22 studies in Table S1 Supplementary Material that were published after Brown and Harris's review Drawing only on studies included in Table S1 Supplementary Material , we can say with confidence that summative self-assessment tends to be inconsistent with external judgements Baxter and Norman, ; De Grez et al.

There are exceptions Alaoutinen, ; Lopez-Pastor et al. We can also say that older, more academically competent learners tend to be more consistent Hacker et al.

There is evidence that consistency can be improved through experience Lopez and Kossack, ; Yilmaz, ; Nagel and Lindsey, , the use of guidelines Bol et al.

Modeling and feedback also help Labuhn et al. An outcome typical of research on the consistency of summative self-assessment can be found in row 59, which summarizes the study by Tejeiro et al.

Students are not stupid: if they know that they can influence their final grade, and that their judgment is summative rather than intended to inform revision and improvement, they will be motivated to inflate their self-evaluation.

I do not believe we need more research to demonstrate that phenomenon. The second reason I am not calling for additional research on consistency is a lot of it seems somewhat irrelevant.

This might be because the interest in accuracy is rooted in clinical research on calibration, which has very different aims.

Calibration research often asks study participants to predict or postdict the correctness of their responses to test items.

I caution about generalizing from clinical experiments to authentic classroom contexts because the dismal picture of our human potential to self-judge was painted by calibration researchers before study participants were effectively taught how to predict with accuracy, or provided with the tools they needed to be accurate, or motivated to do so.

Calibration researchers know that, of course, and have conducted intervention studies that attempt to improve accuracy, with some success e.

Studies of formative self-assessment also suggest that consistency increases when it is taught and supported in many of the ways any other skill must be taught and supported Lopez and Kossack, ; Labuhn et al.

Even clinical psychological studies that go beyond calibration to examine the associations between monitoring accuracy and subsequent study behaviors do not transfer well to classroom assessment research.

The first is that the tasks in which study participants engage are quite inauthentic. Although memory for word pairs might be important in some classroom contexts, it is not safe to assume that results from studies like that one can predict students' behaviors after criterion-referenced self-assessment of their comprehension of complex texts, lengthy compositions, or solutions to multi-step mathematical problems.

The second limitation of studies like the typical one described above is more serious: Participants in research like that are not permitted to regulate their own studying, which is experimentally manipulated by a computer program.

This came as a surprise, since many of the claims were about students' poor study choices but they were rarely allowed to make actual choices.

The authors note that this study design is an improvement on designs that did not require all participants to use the same regulation algorithm, but it does not reflect the kinds of decisions that learners make in class or while doing homework.

In fact, a large body of research shows that students can make wise choices when they self-pace the study of to-be-learned materials and then allocate study time to each item Bjork et al.

In a typical experiment, the students first study all the items at an experimenter-paced rate e. Several dependent measures have been widely used, such as how long each item is studied, whether an item is selected for restudy, and in what order items are selected for restudy.

The literature on these aspects of self-regulated study is massive for a comprehensive overview, see both Dunlosky and Ariel, and Son and Metcalfe, , but the evidence is largely consistent with a few basic conclusions.

First, if students have a chance to practice retrieval prior to restudying items, they almost exclusively choose to restudy unrecalled items and drop the previously recalled items from restudy Metcalfe and Kornell, Second, when pacing their study of individual items that have been selected for restudy, students typically spend more time studying items that are more, rather than less, difficult to learn.

Such a strategy is consistent with a discrepancy-reduction model of self-paced study which states that people continue to study an item until they reach mastery , although some key revisions to this model are needed to account for all the data.

For instance, students may not continue to study until they reach some static criterion of mastery, but instead, they may continue to study until they perceive that they are no longer making progress.

I propose that this research, which suggests that students' unscaffolded, unmeasured, informal self-assessments tend to lead to appropriate task selection, is better aligned with research on classroom-based self-assessment.

Nonetheless, even this comparison is inadequate because the study participants were not taught to compare their performance to the criteria for mastery, as is often done in classroom-based self-assessment.

The third and final reason I do not believe we need additional research on consistency is that I think it is a distraction from the true purposes of self-assessment.

Many if not most of the articles about the accuracy of self-assessment are grounded in the assumption that accuracy is necessary for self-assessment to be useful, particularly in terms of subsequent studying and revision behaviors.

Although it seems obvious that accurate evaluations of their performance positively influence students' study strategy selection, which should produce improvements in achievement, I have not seen relevant research that tests those conjectures.

Some claim that inaccurate estimates of learning lead to the selection of inappropriate learning tasks Kostons et al.

For example, Kostons et al. Other studies produce findings that support my skepticism. Take, for instance, two relevant studies of calibration.

One suggested that performance and judgments of performance had little influence on subsequent test preparation behavior Hacker et al.

Eva and Regehr believe that:. I almost agree. Here, I admit, is a call for research related to consistency: I would love to see a high-quality investigation of the relationship between accuracy in formative self-assessment, and students' subsequent study and revision behaviors, and their learning.

For example, a study that closely examines the revisions to writing made by accurate and inaccurate self-assessors, and the resulting outcomes in terms of the quality of their writing, would be most welcome.

Table S1 Supplementary Material indicates that by researchers began publishing studies that more directly address the hypothesized link between self-assessment and subsequent learning behaviors, as well as important questions about the processes learners engage in while self-assessing Yan and Brown, One, a study by Nugteren et al.

The results suggested that most of the 15 students in their sample over-estimated their performance and made inaccurate learning-task selections.

Nugteren et al. For instance, while working on the genetics tasks, students reported selecting tasks because they were fun or interesting, not because they addressed self-identified weaknesses in their understanding of genetics.

I second that proposal: Rather than directing our efforts on accuracy in the service of improving subsequent task selection, let us simply teach students to use the information at hand to select next best steps, among other things.

Butler , row 76 in Table S1 Supplementary Material has conducted at least two studies of learners' processes of responding to self-assessment items and how they arrived at their judgments.

The contribution of the study is the detailed information it provides about how students generated their judgments.

Perhaps as a result, the correlation between after-task self-assessment and task performance was generally higher than for generic self-assessment.

Butler notes that her study enriches our empirical understanding of the processes by which children respond to self-assessment.

This is a very promising direction for the field. Similar studies of processing during formative self-assessment of a variety of task types in a classroom context would likely produce significant advances in our understanding of how and why self-assessment influences learning and performance.

Fifteen of the studies listed in Table S1 Supplementary Material focused on students' perceptions of self-assessment.

The studies of children suggest that they tend to have unsophisticated understandings of its purposes Harris and Brown, ; Bourke, that might lead to shallow implementation of related processes.

In contrast, results from the studies conducted in higher education settings suggested that college and university students understood the function of self-assessment Ratminingsih et al.

Not surprisingly, positive perceptions of self-assessment were typically developed by students who actively engaged the formative type by, for example, developing their own criteria for an effective self-assessment response Bourke, , or using a rubric or checklist to guide their assessments and then revising their work Huang and Gui, ; Wang, Earlier research suggested that children's attitudes toward self-assessment can become negative if it is summative Ross et al.

However, even summative self-assessment was reported by adult learners to be useful in helping them become more critical of their own and others' writing throughout the course and in subsequent courses van Helvoort, Twenty-five of the studies in Table S1 Supplementary Material investigated the relation between self-assessment and achievement, including two meta-analyses.

Twenty of the 25 clearly employed the formative type. Without exception, those 20 studies, plus the two meta-analyses Graham et al.

The meta-analysis conducted by Graham and his colleagues, which included 10 studies, yielded an average weighted effect size of 0. The Sanchez et al.

All but two of the non-meta-analytic studies of achievement in Table S1 Supplementary Material were quasi-experimental or experimental, providing relatively rigorous evidence that their treatment groups outperformed their comparison or control groups in terms of everything from writing to dart-throwing, map-making, speaking English, and exams in a wide variety of disciplines.

One experiment on summative self-assessment Miller and Geraci, , in contrast, resulted in no improvements in exam scores, while the other one did Raaijmakers et al.

It would be easy to overgeneralize and claim that the question about the effect of self-assessment on learning has been answered, but there are unanswered questions about the key components of effective self-assessment, especially social-emotional components related to power and trust Andrade and Brown, The trends are pretty clear, however: it appears that formative forms of self-assessment can promote knowledge and skill development.

This is not surprising, given that it involves many of the processes known to support learning, including practice, feedback, revision, and especially the intellectually demanding work of making complex, criteria-referenced judgments Panadero et al.

Boud a , b predicted this trend when he noted that many self-assessment processes undermine learning by rushing to judgment, thereby failing to engage students with the standards or criteria for their work.

The association between self-assessment and learning has also been explained in terms of self-regulation Andrade, ; Panadero and Alonso-Tapia, ; Andrade and Brookhart, , ; Panadero et al.

Self-regulated learning SRL occurs when learners set goals and then monitor and manage their thoughts, feelings, and actions to reach those goals.

SRL is moderately to highly correlated with achievement Zimmerman and Schunk, Research suggests that formative assessment is a potential influence on SRL Nicol and Macfarlane-Dick, The 12 studies in Table S1 Supplementary Material that focus on SRL demonstrate the recent increase in interest in the relationship between self-assessment and SRL.

Conceptual and practical overlaps between the two fields are abundant. In fact, Brown and Harris recommend that student self-assessment no longer be treated as an assessment, but as an essential competence for self-regulation.

Butler and Winne introduced the role of self-generated feedback in self-regulation years ago:. As learners monitor their engagement with tasks, internal feedback is generated by the monitoring process.

That feedback describes the nature of outcomes and the qualities of the cognitive processes that led to those states p.

The outcomes and processes referred to by Butler and Winne are many of the same products and processes I referred to earlier in the definition of self-assessment and in Table 1.

In general, research and practice related to self-assessment has tended to focus on judging the products of student learning, while scholarship on self-regulated learning encompasses both processes and products.

The very practical focus of much of the research on self-assessment means it might be playing catch-up, in terms of theory development, with the SRL literature, which is grounded in experimental paradigms from cognitive psychology de Bruin and van Gog, , while self-assessment research is ahead in terms of implementation E.

Panadero, personal communication, October 21, One major exception is the work done on Self-regulated Strategy Development Glaser and Brunstein, ; Harris et al.

Nicol and Macfarlane-Dick have been explicit about the potential for self-assessment practices to support self-regulated learning:.

To develop systematically the learner's capacity for self-regulation, teachers need to create more structured opportunities for self-monitoring and the judging of progression to goals.

Self-assessment tasks are an effective way of achieving this, as are activities that encourage reflection on learning progress p.

The studies of SRL in Table S1 Supplementary Material provide encouraging findings regarding the potential role of self-assessment in promoting achievement, self-regulated learning in general, and metacognition and study strategies related to task selection in particular.

An important aspect of research on self-assessment that is not explicitly represented in Table S1 Supplementary Material is practice, or pedagogy: Under what conditions does self-assessment work best, and how are those conditions influenced by context?

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